Risk Factors of Stroke
Stroke can happen to anyone, but your chances of having a stroke are much higher if you have certain conditions or personal risk factors.
Stroke Risks From Medical Conditions or Lifestyle
Many stroke risks can be controlled or treated. These include:
Smoking – Current smokers have two to four times higher stroke risk than nonsmokers.
High Blood Pressure – Uncontrolled high blood pressure makes stroke much more likely. In people having first stroke, 77 percent have blood pressure higher than 140/90.
Obesity – Stroke risk rises as weight increases.
High Cholesterol – High total cholesterol causes clogged arteries, a stroke risk.
Diabetes – Type 2 diabetes has higher risk of stroke.
Carotid artery disease – May form stroke-producing clot.
Atrial fibrillation – Erratic heart rhythm can create clot, cause stroke. Sleep apnea – Increases stroke risk two to four times; also common after stroke. Alcohol or drug abuse – Both can lead to stroke.
Lack of exercise – Inactivity leads to stroke-related conditions such as high blood pressure and high cholesterol.
Other Stroke Risks
Age – Risk increases as you get older: in ages 55 to 75, one in five women and one in six men experience stroke.
Gender – More men have strokes, yet 60 percent of stroke deaths are in women. Taking birth control pills or hormone replacement therapy may increase risk. Stroke increases during and shortly after pregnancy, possibly due to high blood pressure.
Race – African-Americans have higher risks of stroke, high blood pressure, diabetes and obesity. Sickle cell disease is chief cause of stroke in black children.
Family history of stroke – Your risk is higher if a close blood relative (parents, sister, brother, grandparents) had a stroke.
Previous stroke, heart attack or TIA – Stroke risk increases after first stroke or heart attack. TIA (transient ischemic attack) or “warning stroke” produces stroke symptoms without damage, needs immediate medical follow-up. About 15 percent of strokes have TIA before.